Monday, November 21, 2011


I think it is safe to say this will be a record breaking month. Less than 21 days in and the blog is about 20 views away from a monthly record.

Please continue to comment and subscribe to the blog and most importantly, link to this blog (that is the only thing I am asking readers to do and only because it is important). Despite the fact I get very healthy amount of page hits google still doesn't even list my blog in the top 80 pages when one searches 'geography blog'. Most of the blogs in those 80 pages are never updated, content poor blogs. It is more than time for this blog to be a top search for 'geography blog' yet it isn't even in the listing at all.

Coming up soon is the one year anniversary of the blog. I will be reposting my 5 favorite topics of the past year.

It's been fun so far, so on to year two!

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Of Energy And Leslie White

Old school assignment:

Of Energy And Leslie White

Caleb Golston

Leslie White believed that culture could be divided into 3 parts. However, it was only one of these which he believed caused the majority of cultural evolution. While he saw a sociological and ideological part of society, it was a third part; technological advances, which he saw as moving society forward. White read Marx and Spencer and they influenced his theory, as did Lewis Henry Morgan. He hated Boas on the other hand and began his career in the 20’s when Boas was a major influence on Anthropology. White was obsessed with how civilizations harnessed and controlled energy. Also, the per capita use was of central importance to his theory. He believed the level of evolution of a society could be judged by this. White saw a world unable to harness energy as a lowly evolved thing. Only when humans mastered all forms of energy could they be highly advanced.

He believed in 4 stages of evolution solely determined through the lens of energy use. First, in the most primitive places, people create tools. Second, people domesticate animals and develop agriculture, (the Neolithic Revolution). Third and fourth they exploit gas, coal and other natural resources, (the Industrial Revolution). As a result, he created and used the formula P=et to demonstrate the evolution of a society. P is the cultural development of a society, E is energy use per capita and T is efficiency in harnessing energy.

White also championed the ‘layer cake model of culture’. This was the 3 parts of society with technology and economy at the bottom, social and political structure in the middle and ideology at the top. Each stage resting on the one below. So, at the very core, technology was the basis of society, and it effected and was shown through the economy.

There are many things which are important to look at in a society to see how evolved it is, according to White’s theory. The amount of struggle to provide for basic needs, the level of technical specialization in a society, the amount of people who work specifically to find and extract energy, the level of consumption each person in a society has of energy. A society where energy use is seen as fashionable, or where fashionable things require a lot of energy to come to the marketplace would rank high on his scale. One interesting possible problem with White’s law is moral/political reasons for not using energy, despite its theoretical availability. For example, there are many people against the use of nuclear energy. Also, so people are against the use of fossil fuels. Others believe materialism is a bad thing, and therefore the energy use is a little less in that society as a result. This is not necessarily due to a lack of ability, or a based only on efficiency, labor or means of production.

While sheer energy use is a part of White’s law, another factor involved is efficiency. So, if, in the future the standard of living goes up, but the amount of energy goes down, than society will be more efficient, and therefore not have de-evolved. Efficiency is the key to the future as far as not increasing the amount of energy used and wasted, while maintaining a highly developed lifestyle. The innovations made and the use of machines in the future will determine how advanced on White’s scale that a society can become, without increasing the energy use per capita.

A theoretically more advanced society would have to be one which was nuclear, since it would fit into the highest stage on White’s chart. It would need to either use extraordinary amounts of energy or be extraordinarily efficient in energy use. It could also strike a perfect balance between the two. I think a society which harnesses wind or solar would be more advanced than the current energy use of the majority of the world. If millions of solar panels and wind turbines needing only minimal upkeep caught unlimited amounts of energy, then energy would be efficient, and unlimited. Machines would have to do the bulk of the work, and do so efficiently. If machines could solve their own problems and become more efficient on there own, than that would be even more of an advanced society. If people were free to pursue lives that used enormous amounts of energy, such as travelling, attending large events, using high tech electronics, have machines constantly running, and the source of the energy making all of this possible was highly efficient, than it would be a much more advanced society than our own.

Environmental Adaptation By The Hohokam

Old school paper:

Environmental Adaptation By The Hohokam

Caleb Golston

The Sonoran Desert is a land of harsh extremes, yet today, as well as in the past, people

have called this place home. The Hohokam laid the foundation for future settlement and
thrived due their ability to manipulate their environment. These environmental
manipulations had positive and negative consequences.

The people who lived in what is now Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora
Mexico, are known as the Hohokam. In post European contact, various groups called the
region home, such as the Pima, Maricopa and Tohono O'odham. None of the Hohokam
successors equaled them in geographic extent, population density, complexity of political
organization, size of settlements or complexity of social structure (Fish 270) There is
much debate as to how much the Hohokam influenced later groups such as the Pima.

Today, two major cities are in the Hohokam area; Tucson, Arizona and Phoenix, Arizona.
The latter is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States. In the past one
hundred years, various explosions in population and growth have occurred. In the next
hundred, similar growth would not be unlikely. Thus, due to the success of the Hohokam
in thriving in a harsh environment, which more and more people are now calling home, it
would be practical, if not necessary to study their methods for modern day use, or to
avoid certain bad practices. This rational clearly shows that such a study has
consequences far beyond entertainment.

The Hohokam lived in the Sonoran desert. Hot weather deserts are found on earth
usually between 15 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator, due to a number of
factors including air pressure and low winds. Two factors which affect life in the desert
the most are the intense heat and low moisture. Cactus, for example, have adapted to this
climate by reducing surface area, slow growth and conserving water. Despite the
inhospitable climate, many plants such as Ocotillo, Creosote, Saguaro, Organ Pipe
Cactus, Cholla Cactus and Prickly Pear Cactus cover the landscape. Organ Pipe Cactus
and Saguros, grow in very particular environments within the Sonoran Desert. The
Sonoran Desert is one of the four American deserts (Cohn 84). Above all rainfall and
water is the limiting factor for plants and animals (Cohn 84). Animals in the Sonoran
desert include the desert mule deer, black tailed jackrabbit, desert cottontail, Gila monster
and desert tortoise.

The Hohokam lived in large oval or quadrangle floor plan dwellings (Ezell 62).
They created pottery, a hallmark of settled society. The specific ceramics they made were
red on buff ceramics (Ezell 64). They were also known for their paddle and anvil pottery
(Bohrer 413). Their pottery included human and animal figures often but rarely plant
forms (Zaslow 75). They built ball courts and flat top mounds, similar to those in
Mesoamerica with the earliest phase being about 300 BC. This monumental architecture
was similar but not nearly as large or extensive as seen in Mesoamerica. Their burial
practices were cremation, while later the Pima practiced inhumation, demonstrating one
of many breaks between the earlier Hohokam culture and the later Pima (Ezell 63). The
Hohokam were agriculturalists and grew corn, beans, squash and agave as mainstays of
their diet. In places, various cholla cactus (Cylindropuntia sp.) were also harvested and
this might have indicated hard times due to the difficulty in harvesting such cactus.
Saguaro, especially the fruits, were used for food as well. Many settlements were based
around reliable Saguaro patches. Agave was made into fiber and they grew cotton.
Tobacco was grown for ritual consumption as well as daily use (Winter). Some of the
most famous archaeology sites from the Hohokam homeland are Casa Grande, south of
modern day Phoenix and North of Tucson, Snaketown, and various sites in the Salt River
and Gila River valley.

The Hohokam adapted to their environment in several crucial ways allowing them
to survive and thrive in the desert. The Salt and Gila rivers were highly important for the
survival of the Hohokam groups in the region (Fish 270). Water, overall was the most
important factor in survival. If plenty of water was available, than corn, squash and other
plants could be grown despite drought, excessive temperatures or cold.
One of the most crucial adaptations was the development of canals. The Hohokam
developed these canals as early as 300 BC. They were used most extensively from AD
550 – AD 1450 (Dart 63). One of the main reasons these canals were important, was
because the region is prone to terrible droughts, experiencing 18 droughts, an average of
one every fifty-five years for 900 years (Bowers 429) Today, Phoenix has canals as it did
in the past. In the early 1900’s the ancient canals were still intact in many places.

Explosive development over the next 100 years destroyed many of them. Still, many of
the modern day canals are built on the same system that the Hohokam developed (Dart
63). These canals were most likely controlled by an elite (Motsinger 89). They were
maintained and built upon over the centuries and were vital to the success of the
Hohokam in several regions, especially the Gila and Salt river area and in Snaketown.
Efficient handling of water in arid region was one of the main accomplishments of the
Hohokam, making them more advanced than other groups (Ezell 62). The fact that they
were built at all indicates some level of organization, as the construction would not be a
pleasant job in the heat. The many signs of elites in the region, such as monumental
architecture, canals, agricultural surplus and roads point to the highly developed society
required to flourish in the desert.

Agriculture was also key to the Hohokam. The Hopi to the north practice dry corn
growing but this not possible in the Sonoran desert. Because of this, the Hohokam created
irrigation systems. These irrigation systems are a separate development from canals
(Ezell 62). The fact that the Hohokam engaged in extensive irrigation allowed large scale
agriculture otherwise impossible in an arid landscape. This led to the population of the
Phoenix basin in the late prehistoric to approach 40,000-100,000 (Fish 273). It was one of
the most densely settled areas in North America, despite being one of the least promising
to begin with. One advantage to the region, however, is that it has two growing seasons,
as long as sufficient water is available. This allowed for large surpluses to feed a large

Another impact the Hohokam made to their environment was the construction of
roads. In the Snaketown area, the total road system was probably approximately 140 km
long (Motsinger 89). The Hohokam were highly connected with a broad region. They
received shell from the Sea of Cortez and they had an extensive shell trade and shell
decoration culture (Mitchell 27). Peoples in the Chaco region also constructed roads, so
The Hohokam were not the only people group in the Southwest to construct roads. The
roads could be classified as trails in some respects, less developed than the Incan road
system, yet, they are still visible today, especially when viewed from the air. Their
purpose was transportation, economic ties and sociopolitical connection. The roads were
controlled by a sociopolitical hierarchy, the same power structure which could summon
the construction and the controlling of the canals (Motsinger 89). These roads would have
lightly disturbed the immediate vegetation, but would not have altered the landscape in as
drastic a way as large scale farming. Although, the larger scale the roads, the more
erosion could be a danger. Finally, the Hohokam used controlled burning to their
advantage as well.

Due to the abilities of the Hohokam, large scale settlement was possible. Many
Hohokam sites exhibit deep sedentism indicating permanent settlement for centuries (Hill
689). In the largest of these sites, the Hohokam constructed monumental architecture.
The main form of monumental architecture was ball courts, roads and platform mounds
(Ezell 62).

An important aspect of the topic of environmental change is not only the nature of
the people in the region, but how they react and manipulate the plants of the area. Plants
play in integral part in the protection, or destruction of an environment. For example, an
invasive species can harm an entire ecosystem. A nitrogen fixing plant, like many
legumes, can help the environment. A larger plant can provide shade for a smaller one,
and so on. Also, some plant’s benefit from human interaction and many are hurt as a
result. Plants of the desert have adapted to drought conditions and can last many years
without water. (Dubrovsky) The plants Chenopod, Amaranth and Spiderling (Fish 274)
also may have played a role in the agriculture of the region. They grew as weeds in the
corn fields, yet could be used to supplement the diet. These weeds were more local and
not as dependent on farming as corn, beans and squash. It is likely they were more
difficult to process and used as food.

Many other tactics were used by the Hohokam to survive in an arid environment.
Prickly pear cactus was planted and grown on the perimeter of a field or in a fallow field
to protect the soil (Fish 274). This is even sometimes done in modern farms today. Piles
of rock, ever abundant in the Sonoran desert, could serve as mulch to retain moisture and
contribute nutrients to the soil (Fish 278).

The Hohokam faced many threats from their environment and impacts from their
lifestyle. Their canals, irrigation, roads, monumental architecture were built and had
consequences, as did having a large scale population.

One major threat to the Hohokam agricultural way of life was “progressive soil
exhaustion” (Fish 272). Eventually, such soil depletion events could and sometimes did
lead to abandonment. This is another factor which ultimately probably led to the
Hohokam’s disappearance. The irrigation channels were effective in protecting against
progressive soil exhaustion by carrying large amounts of sediment to the fields. This was
also taken out of the canals during periodic cleanings. Floods were and still are today, a
major issue in most desert environments including the Sonoran. Flooding was such an
issue for the Hohokam it probably contributed to their eventual disappearance (Hill 690).
When rain suddenly falls hard on a dry soil, it has a difficult time being absorbed and will
cause catastrophic flash flooding. In canyons, sudden flash floods can sweep away people
without warning. Before their ultimate downfall, the Hohokam took advantage of the
terrible storms which briefly cause soil to be mixed and moved. They diverted strategic
storm flows into their canals and irrigation ditches (Fish 272). This greatly enriched the
soils in their agricultural fields and turned a highly negative event into a positive one.
Still it had its consequences, such as erosion. This can arise from many factors other than
floods. Similarly, desertification is a constant threat in a dry, arid area such as the
Sonoran. Even still, salinification is another major issue that the Hohokam largely
avoided for several hundred years. In Arizona today, salinification is an issue and has
negative consequences on crops, land and water supply. When water or soil becomes too
saline, almost all life suffers. Humans can intake too much sodium leading to high blood
pressure, or can experience dehydration due to a sodium imbalance. In plants, certain
plants can be severely affected, and die off, while certain invasive species which thrive in
salty soil invade. This further displaces the plants which currently live in a region,
creating an imbalance in the ecosystem. If the Hohokam experienced any salinification, it
likely was a factor in there disappearance and downfall.

The Sonoran Desert varies considerably from location to location (Cohn 84).
Certain plants and animals exist in one area and yet not in another. The altitude is one of
the biggest factors in determining rainfall, temperature and flora. The higher up one goes,
the cooler the climate, the more precipitation, and the more trees are found like Pinyon,
Juniper and Oak trees. Adaptations had to be made in order to live in these various
environments, such as warmer clothing, or a more open style home in the low elevation
sites, for improved ventilation and cooling.

The El-Nino Southern Oscillation affects the Sonoran desert every 2-7 years
(Bowers 422). This is yet another challenge facing the inhabitants of the region. It is
likely the Hohokam could somewhat anticipate the various drought or highly moist
events that came in a cyclical fashion. Most areas in the Hohokam lands did not have
large permanent rivers as did the people of the Gila River and Salt River area. Outside the
Phoenix Basin, such as the Tucson Basin, communities linked by political ties and trade
across varying landscape to provide mutual strength (Fish 275). These social and political
ties were vital in making sure that various areas did not die of starvation or dehydration in
extremely scarce times. This kind of linking for protection is seen all over the world.
Another example across the world, is the Kula Ring, which creates ties across islands,
and benefits small islands with virtually no resources.

A final issue in facing the desert, is warming trends. The Sonoran desert has and is
warming (Cohn 85). One evidence of this is the recent arrival of the Javelina not seen
before the 1700’s. As the desert becomes hotter and water becomes scarcer, more and
more pressure will be put upon the inhabits. When temperatures become hotter, even on
average by only a slight amount, the results can change ecosystems, especially fragile
ones. This is not necessarily the direct result of people of southern Arizona, but could be
a worldwide event.

By the late 1400’s the Hohokam disappeared in the Archaeological record. (Hill
689) The Pima people largely replaced them. How much of the Hohokam culture and
way of life remained is vigorously debated and unsettled. The Pima were not local people
but from the Colorado River area near modern day Yuma. Today, the Archaeology in this
region is unrelenting (Bayman 70). As Phoenix and Tucson grow, further study is certain.
It will be important to learn from the ways the Hohokam adapted to their environment,
for the benefit of the future.

Works Cited

Bayman, James M.. “Hohokam Craft Economies and the Materialization of Power,” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 9:1 (2002) 69-95.

Bohrer, Vorsila L.. American “Ethnobotanical Aspects of Snaketown, a Hohokam Village in Southern Arizona,” Antiquity 35:4 (1970):413-430.

Bowers, Janice E. “Effects of Drought on Shrub Survival and Longevity in the Northern Sonoran Desert” Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132:3 ( 2005):421-431.

Bowers, Janice E. “El NiñO and Displays of Spring-Flowering Annuals in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts” Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132:1 (2005): 38-49.

Cohn, Jeffrey P.. “The Sonoran Desert,” BioScience 46:2 Disease Ecology (1996):84-87.

Dart, Allen. “Sediment Accumulation along Hohokam Canals,” Kiva 51:2 (1986):63-84.

Dubrovsky, Joseph G.. “Seed Hydration Memory in Sonoran Desert Cacti and Its Ecological Implication” American Journal of Botany 83:5 (1996): 624-632.

Ezell, Paul H.. “Is There a Hohokam-Pima Culture Continuum?” American Antiquity
29:1 (1963): 61-66.

Fish, Suzanne K. and Paul R. Fish. “Prehistoric Landscapes of the Sonoran Desert Hohokam”
Population and Environment 13:2 (1992):269-283.

Hill, J. Brett, Jeffery J. Clark, William H. Doelle and Patrick D. Lyons. “Prehistoric Demography in the Southwest: Migration, Coalescence, and Hohokam Population Decline,” American Antiquity 69:4 (2004): 689-716.

McGuire, Randall H. and Ann Valdo Howard. “The Structure and Organization of Hohokam Shell Exchange,” Kiva 52:2 (1987):113-146.

Mitchell, Douglas R. and Michael S. Foster. “Hohokam Shell Middens along the Sea of Cortez, Puerto Peñasco, Sonora, Mexico” Journal of Field Archaeology 27:1 (2000): 27-41.

Motsinger, Thomas N. “Hohokam Roads at Snaketown, Arizona,” Journal of Field Archaeology 25:1 (1998):89-96.

M. Peinado, F. Alcaraz, J. L. Aguirre and J. Delgadillo. “Major Plant Communities of Warm North American Deserts,” Journal of Vegetation Science 6:1 (1995):79-94.

Parker, Kathleen C. . “Climatic Effects on Regeneration Trends for Two Columnar Cacti in the Northern Sonoran Desert,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83:3 (1993):452-474.

Showalter, Pamela Sands. “A Thematic Mapper Analysis of the Prehistoric Hohokam Canal System, Phoenix, Arizona,” Journal of Field Archaeology 20:1 (1993): 77-90.

Winter, Joseph C. 2000. Tobacco use by Native North Americans: sacred smoke and silent killer. The civilization of the American Indian series, v. 236. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Zaslow, Bert and Evar D. Nering. “A Botanical Growth Pattern Depicted on a Decorated Hohokam Bowl” Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 18:2 (1983): 75-77.

Caleb Golston, FTW!: Environmental Adaptation By The Hohokam

Caleb Golston, FTW!: Environmental Adaptation By The Hohokam: Old School Paper: Environmental Adaptation By The Hohokam Caleb Golston The Sonoran Desert is a land of harsh extremes, yet today, as w...

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Old Norse Language

I was looking up information on the Old Norse tongue and found this interesting site:

Sorry I cannot expound upon it further but link has tonnes of info.

Sunday, November 13, 2011

Israel Map And Iran Map

Obviously, Israel and Iran have been in the news lately. It would be prudent for all Americans to familiarize themselves with the two countries. Therefore, I am posting three maps tonight: an Israel map, an Iran map and a map of the wider region demonstrating where they are relative to each other.

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Map of Israel (This is a detailed map and hard to see at some sizes. Use the zoom function on your browser and it becomes very clear)

Map of Iran

Relative to each other.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Alaska Map

Due to today's storm in Nome, Alaska there is a lot of people who want to see a map of Alaska.

Alaska Map, (Nome, Alaska is on  the west coast on the Seward Peninsula).

Here is another one since maps are cool. And important.

Printable Map of Canada (1 With and 1 Without Province Borders)

Here are two Maps of Canada. One is blank, without province borders and one is blank other than province borders,

Canada Map

Blank Map of Canada

Canada Map

Blank Province map of Canada

Tuesday, November 8, 2011

Nome, Alaska

Nome, Alaska, aerial view, 2006. Photo: ra64

I have always found an eerie beauty to the vast wastes of the north. Places like Nome, Alaska literly lie at the end of the world. Isolated from where everyone else lives, these places are mysterious and lonely.  

Nome lies on the west central coast of Alaska on the Seward Peninsula. The peninsula is dominated by  Black spruce, Picea mariana. Inupiats lived in the region first until 1898 when three scandanavian-americans found gold in Anvil Creek Alaska.

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Nome, 1900, library of congress photo.

In 1900 the population of Nome was a respectable, especially for the time, 12,488. It is believed the population reached 20,000 at one point (though this was never officially confirmed) as ships from San Francisco and Seattle brought thousands of fortune seekers to Nome. In fact, Nome was largest city in Alaska Territory at this point. By 1920 that number had plummeted like the cold Arctic night air to 852 souls. 

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Road sign, 2 miles north of Nome, Alaska, 16 October, 2005. Photo: ra64

Fierce storms have occured in 1900, 1913, 1945 and 1974. Today, I was inspired to write this article because Nome is in the news because of another such storm (Nome Storm of November 2011). It could end up being biggest storms in Nome in a long time.

Currently about 3,548 people live in Nome. The city has not declined in population since at least 1990.

Alaska has always had an incredible history. I remembering hearing a lecture on the 'end of the frontier' or the 'Frontier Thesis' of Frederick Jackson Tuner. While Jackons' arguement might not have meant the literal frontier and was more political and sociological in nature, I must say Alaska is still that frontier that America once was. It is still wild and grand and vast. It is also currently in the spotlight. Shows like Deadliest Catch with colourful captians like Sig Hansen and the late Phil Harris capture the imagination of a new generation (I was about 16 when I first watched the show). And then there is the story of Richard Proenneke which I discovered on PBS in the mid-2000's and so many others.

File:Tarns in Kigluaik Mts., Seward Peninsula.jpg
tarns in Kigluaik Mts., Seward Peninsula, 12 December 2009.

 File:Seward peninsula.png
Demi Public Domain Map Server

Thursday, November 3, 2011

Photography of Todd Tobey

Truly spectacular photography of Oklahoma by Todd Tobey on this site:

I am not going to put any pictures up since I haven't asked permission but I highly recommend you check out his flickr, you will not regret.

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Australian Alps


The Alps in Europe are very well known. The Southern Alps, located in New Zealand are less famous. But few outside of Australia have probably heard of the Australian Alps. They form part of the Great Dividing Range, the third longest land based mountain chain in the world.

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Isn't Austria nice! Actually, this is Australia. 9 July 2007. A view over the central part of the Mt Buller village. Photo: Steve Bennett

File:Perisher Olympic Ski Trail.JPG
J.Lee, Digital Photograph of Perisher - showing Mount Perisher's Olympic Ski Trail, covered in winter snow complete with skiers.

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On the slopes at Mount Blue Cow, Perisher Blue Resort. 28 July 2006 Photo: Ruth Ellison.

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Mount Ginini - Namadgi National Park 2006-10-04 Photo: Dfrg.msc

Yankee Hat Aboriginal Artwork in Namadgi National Park, Australian Capital Territory. Taken by me (Martyman) November 2005.

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Mount Ginini - Namadgi National Park 2006-10-04. Photo:  Dfrg.msc .

An (ungroomed) trail at Lake Mountain after recent snowfall. Taken by me Shogun 10:50, 17 February 2006 (UTC).

Panoramic view across the Mt Buffalo plateau. The highest peak on Mt Buffalo, The Horn at 1,723 m, is the white peak to image right approximately 3 km from the location of the camera (a walker's safety fence can be seen on top). The large number of dead trees visible resulted from the 2006-07 Victorian Alps Bushfires. Mount Buffalo National Park, Victoria, Australia. Taken by John O'Neill.

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View of the Mt Buffalo plateau as seen from below the Horn. Photo: Zoltan Olah

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Looking over everlastings on Mt Hotham to Mt Feathertop, Victoria, Australia. 12 Mar, 2005. Photo: John O'Neill

View of Mt Hotham ski fields after 20 cm fresh snowfall, featuring the notable ski run "Mary's Slide". June 2006, Photo: Chris Solnordal.

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Mt Buffalo The Horn, 2 December 2006 Photo: Percita Dittmar

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

What Is The Longest River In Asia?

The Yangtze (in China) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world. It is 3,915 miles/6,301 km long. The Huang He or Yellow River, also in China, is the second longest in Asia and the 6th longest in the world at 3,395 miles/5,464 km long. The Mekong is the third longest in Asia, the Lena (in Russia) is the fourth and the Irtysh River, also in Russia is the 5th longest in Asia.